The Salzkammergut is not a federal province, but an area shared between Salzburg and more so Upper Austria and Styria. It is famous for its scenery, picturesque villages and many lakes. It also has a very distinct culture, expressed in architecture, customs (including the traditional clothing) and cuisine.
It is among Austria′s top-tourist attractions and individual areas within the Salzkammergut are jointly a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site. Since the Bronze Age, salt was quarried in this region, making it wealthy ever since. Personally, I think that it is the most beautiful region in Austria, and if you keep clicking the advertisements on TourMyCountry.com, this might be where I will retire soon.